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background study of cowpea

is one of the most important legumes in tropical and semi-arid regions.However, there is relatively little genomic information available for genetic research on and breeding of cowpea. 1.1 Background to the Study Cowpea is a popular and nutritionally important legume crop in many parts of the world. [23] A pod can contain six to 13 seeds that are usually kidney-shaped, although the seeds become more spherical the more restricted they are within the pod. [44] The larvae burrow their way into the seed, feeding on the endosperm. against this background that a study as this has been undertaken to evaluate eight varieties of cowpea in altisol (Asaba agro-ecological environment with a view to selecting the variety (ies) that will best adapt to the conditions in the Southern part of Nigeria using Asaba agro-ecological environment as case study. Brazil is the world's second-leading producer of cowpea seed, accounting for 17% of annual cowpea production, although most is consumed within the country. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY. [62], Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world cowpea production. Legumes are sometimes refserred to as “poor man’s meat” or the “rich man’s vegetable” ( Walker, 1981). Study subjects will receive 3 times per week, as part of the school feeding programme 66g of raw fortified cowpea (with added 10mg Fe as NaFeEDTA)in form of Toubani (a cowpea based snack). [40] Biological control has had limited success, so most preventive methods rely on the use of agrichemicals. Background: Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the ability to enhance the growth, fitness, and quality of various agricultural crops, including cowpea. [60][61] They can also be processed into a paste or flour. It is mostly cultivated by small-scale (subsistence) farmers, usually intercropped with maize or sorghum. BACKGROUND. Over time, cowpeas became more universally accepted and now Hoppin' John is seen as a traditional Southern dish ritually served on New Year's Day. Cowpea is economically useful as vegetable (leaves), a protein source (seeds and young pods), fodder and pulse crop. [73] In some tradition cropping methods, the yield can be as low as 100 kilograms per hectare (0.045 short ton/acre). Similarly, pr otein content of. Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is the most important grain legume and fodder crop in the dry savannas of tropical Africa. It grows best in regions with an annual rainfall between 400 and 700 mm (16 and 28 in). Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides Karolina E Mellor, Ava M Hoffman and Michael P Timko* Abstract Background: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an … [31], The optimum temperature for cowpea growth is 30 °C (86 °F), making it only available as a summer crop for most of the world. Cowpea is a legume that is extensively grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa. [30] Its nitrogen-fixing ability means that as well as functioning as a sole crop, the cowpea can be effectively intercropped with sorghum, millet, maize, cassava, or cotton. 1976). Productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] in sub-Sahara Africa is curtailed by a lack of farmer-preferred and improved cultivars and modern production technologies. 2012-01-01. A common snack in Africa is koki or moin-moin, where the cowpeas are mashed into a paste, mixed with spices and steamed in banana leaves. [38], Insects are a major factor in the low yields of African cowpea crops, and they affect each tissue component and developmental stage of the plant. Cowpeas were domesticated in Africa[citation needed] and are one of the oldest crops to be farmed. The seeds can be harvested after about 100 days or the whole plant used as forage after about 120 days. Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), is an important grain legume grown in the tropics where it constitutes a valuable source of protein in the diets of millions of people. [21], Compared to most other important crops, little is known about the domestication, dispersal, and cultivation history of the cowpea. The crop is mainly grown for its seeds, which are high in protein, although the leaves and immature seed pods can also be consumed. Cowpea proteins provide the three esential amino acids lysine threonine and methionine, (Dhankher et al 1990. [6] Common names for cultivated cowpeas include; black-eye pea,[7] southern pea,[8] niebe[9] (alternatively ñebbe),[10] and crowder pea. [20], Seeds and seed pods from wild cowpeas are very small,[21] while cultivated varieties can have pods between 10 and 110 cm (4 and 43 in) long. [4] While they play a key role in subsistence farming and livestock fodder, the cowpea is also seen as a major cash crop by Central and West African farmers, with an estimated 200 million people consuming cowpea on a daily basis. The beans are also known by other names such as blackeye beans, southern peas, … It is also utilized as fodder and as quick growing cover-crop. Background. Hence, this research was initiated with the Leaves can be picked from 4 weeks after planting. [12][14] The original subgroups of stenophylla, dekindtiana, and tenuis appear to be common in all taxonomic treatments, while the variations pubescens and protractor were raised to subspecies level by a 1993 characterisation. [12][13] The classification of the wild relatives within V. unguiculata is more complicated, with over 20 different names having been used and between 3 and 10 subgroups described. 1.1 Background Cowpea is a widely grown legume in tropical and subtropical Africa. The objectives of this study were to analyse the cowpea transcriptome and develop genic molecular markers for future genetic studies of this genus. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF FOUR COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF AFRICAN CATFISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS). As the cowpea plant develops, leaves are picked Consequently, cowpea production should be enhanced. [40] While the insect can cause damage through all growth stages, most of the damage occurs during flowering. [53] Drought lowers the growth rate and development, ultimately reducing yield, although cowpea is considered more drought tolerant than most other crops. [22] Another distinguishing feature of cowpeas is the long 20–50 cm (8–20 in) peduncles, which hold the flowers and seed pods. The whole plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its name. [52], Besides biotic stresses, cowpea also faces various challenges in different parts of the world such as drought, heat, and cold. [12][15], The first written reference of the word 'cowpea' appeared in 1798 in the United States. Cowpea is a drought-resistant crop, a characteristic that makes it ideal for growth in East and West Africa. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) ... the burden of taking care of my kids during the last few months of this study. They are grown mainly for their edible beans. The specific objectives of this study were to assess: Legumes are primarily important as sources of protein in diets in many parts of the world. Background: Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. [51] CpTI is the only gene obtained outside of B. thuringiensis that has been inserted into a commercially available genetically modified crop. [13] From there they traveled north to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans. Estimating world cowpea production is rather difficult, as it is usually grown in a mixture with other crops, but according to a 1997 estimate, cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) and have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes. In addition, they supply the essential minerals, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc and phosphorus (Aykroyed et al. [62] Although little research has been conducted on the nutritional value of the leaves and immature pods, what is available suggests that the leaves have a similar nutritional value to black nightshade and sweet potato leaves, while the green pods have less antinutritional factors than the dried seeds. 1.1 Background of the Study Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L).Walp) is a tropical grain legume widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Asia, parts of the United States and Southern Europe (Singh et al., Cowpea is grown mainly for the seed and sometimes pods in West Africa, India and South America, but it is grown for both seeds, pods and leaves in East Africa. Despite its importance, researchers have fewer ways to study cowpea plants, which means that researchers had to turn to the tobacco plant to test how these receptors actually work. [58] Like other legumes, cowpeas are cooked to make them edible, usually by boiling. The whole plant is used as … In Sudan, people relied mostly on other available leguminous crops (Ahmed and Nour, 1990). Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., is a highly important grain legume crop grown in semi-arid and dry savannah agro-ecological zones of the tropics. One peduncle can support four or more seed pods. The grain provides valuable protein and the leaves are used as a nutritious vegetable. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. [66] A popular dish was Hoppin' John, which contained black-eyed peas cooked with rice and seasoned with pork. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. Jav. Higher meat prices during recent years and the need for protein- rich foods have led people in the most developing countries to shift their consumption to cowpeas and other grain legumes. Like other grain legumes, cowpeas are a good source of energy, proteins (amino acids), vitamins, minerals and deitary fiber. Nigeria’s Leader Role In African Union Under President Muhammadu Buhari 2015-2019, GEO-ELECTRIC SOUNDINGS FOR GROUNDWATER EXPLORATION IN PART OF PORT HARCOURT, RIVERS STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA, Nutrient and anti nutrient analysis of Veronia cinerea, DETERMINATION OF BACTERIAL COMPOSITION, HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF FISH POND WATER IN NIGERIA, Bio-fertilizers as key player in enhancing soil fertility and crop productivity: A Review, Conversion of food waste to liquid manure, NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SOME PROCESSED AND UNPROCESSED LESSER KNOWN VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN NIGERIA, Decline Usage of School Farm Operations Among Agricultural Sciences Students in Secondary Schools, phytochemical components of Struchium Sparganophora (Ewuro Odo) Leaf, EFFECT OF DIFFERENT STORAGE METHODS ON THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COWPEA GRAINS, COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF COWPEA SEED, Farmers awareness on the effect of Aflatoxin in groundnut (arachis hypogea), PHYTOCHEMICAL AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF PAWPAW (Papaya) SEED, heamatological parameters and serum biochemical indices of indgenous sheep fed elephant grass. Adam D. Steinbrenner, Maria Muñoz-Amatriaín, Antonio F. Chaparro, Jessica Montserrat Aguilar-Venegas, Sassoum Lo, Satohiro Okuda, Gaetan Glauser, Julien Dongiovanni, Da Shi, Marlo Hall, Daniel Crubaugh, Nicholas Holton, Cyril Zipfel, Ruben Abagyan, Ted C. J. Turlings, Timothy J. They thrive in poor conditions, growing well in soils ipto 85% sand. [59] Cowpeas can be prepared in stews, soups, purees, casseroles and curries. [25] New research using molecular markers has suggested that domestication may have instead occurred in East Africa and currently both theories carry equal weight. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of genetic diversity present among a collection of cowpea accessions from Zambia and Malawi using phenotypic traits and single nucleotide … The weevil develops into a sexually mature adult within the seed. The timing of planting is crucial, as the plant must mature during the seasonal rains. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. [18] Cowpeas can either be short and bushy (as short as 20 cm or 8 in) or act like a vine by climbing supports or trailing along the ground (to a height of 2 m or 6 ft 7 in). [28] The first written references to the cowpea were in 300 BC and they probably reached Central and North America during the slave trade through the 17th to early 19th centuries. [45] An individual bruchid can lay 20–40 eggs, and in optimal conditions, each egg can develop into a reproductively active adult in 3 weeks. [19][20] The taproot can penetrate to a depth of 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) after eight weeks. Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils. Uses of cowpea … Cowpea grains contain around 22% protein and provide a cheap source of dietary protein for low-income urban and rural populations. Cowpeas can be erect, semierect (trailing), or climbing. [21] Flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and white and blue. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. Background. Background. Background. Cowpea are major sources of protein in developing countries where consumption of certain animal foods is taboo because of religious or customary beliefs. Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata and Vigna Senensis) are important grain legumes in East and West Africa as well other developing countries (Dovlo et al. Of the different species of bean consume in the country, cowpeas in particular have attracted attention as possible home grown sources of protein and successive selections have made it possible to introduce several high yielding varieties with desirable packages of nutrients and with resistance to pest and microbial infections (Ologhobo et al, 1983). Review of Politics and Public Policy in Emerging Economies Vol. Colours include white, cream, green, red, brown, and black, or various combinations. RESULTS Black-eyed peas were first introduced to the southern states in the United States and some early varieties had peas squashed closely together in their pods, leading to the other common names of southern pea and crowder pea. [41], Severe C. maculatus infestations can affect 100% of the stored peas and cause up to 60% loss within a few months. [50] CPMV is stable and easy to propagate to a high yield, making it useful in vector development and protein expression systems. [17], A large morphological diversity is found within the crop, and the growth conditions and grower preferences for each variety vary from region to region. Background: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) serves as a major food and income generation crop for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and Central America. [49] The plant is susceptible to mosaic viruses, which cause a green mosaic pattern to appear in the leaves. Genetically modified cowpeas are being developed to express the cry protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, which is toxic to lepidopteran species including the maruca. ... Glutinous Rice Flour and Addition of Cowpea Flour. [16] Black-eyed pea, a common name used for the unguiculata cultivar group, describes the presence of a distinctive black spot at the hilum of the seed. Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. Finally, to all members of “The Prayer Stronghold International Ministries” family friends ... General background and History 5 2.1.3. (Hasskarl)", "Southern Peas - Gardening Solutions - University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences", "Niebe: A Food of Choice to Combat Hunger", "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (, "The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa", "Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus". As well as an important source of food for humans in poor, arid regions, the crop can also be used as feed for livestock. Generally, 133,000 seeds are planted per hectare (54,000/acre) for the erect varieties and 60,000 per hectare (24,000/acre) for the climbing and trailing varieties. Background:Nutritional anemia is a public health problem among Ghanaian schoolchildren. In bad infestations, insect pressure is responsible for over 90% loss in yield. [33] The crop is mostly intercropped with pearl millet, and plants are selected that provide both food and fodder value instead of the more specialised varieties. [69] Cowpea starch is digested more slowly than the starch from cereals, which is more beneficial to human health. The pulse is indigenous to Africa (Okigbo, 1986), though it is now grown in other continents, such as Central America (Bressani et al. Unguiculata is Latin for "with a small claw", which reflects the small stalks on the flower petals. Increase in vegetable protein, vitamin and soluble carbohydrates supply from cowpea in malnourished areas presents a less difficult, less expensive and more energy efficient solution. [21], The size and shape of the leaves vary greatly, making this an important feature for classifying and distinguishing cowpea varieties. [5] The legume pod borer Maruca vitrata is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea and the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus the main postharvest pest. Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins. [50] One of the plant's defenses against some insect attacks is the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI). as a food crop in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in West Africa (Rachie, 1973; R.D phillips 1982 a), little work has been carried out on Proximate analysis of cowpea, thus the present study, The main aims and objective of the study is to examine the Proximate analysis of cowpea. 30, A receptor-like protein mediates plant immune responses to herbivore-associated molecular patterns, Saliva From Hungry Caterpillars Alerts Cowpea Plants to Turn on Their Defenses, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cowpea&oldid=1001180911, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, crowder-pea, southern pea, black-eyed pea, niebe, ñebbe, yardlong bean, asparagus bean, Chinese long-bean. Comparing the effectivity of Glutinous rice starch (Oryza Sativa var Glutinosa) and Cassava starch (Manihot Esculenta) in making Biodegradable plastic CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Plastics are a part of our daily lives. Niger is the main exporter of cowpeas and Nigeria the main importer. [42][43] The weevil generally enters the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the dry seed. With its use as a major constraint to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and.... Dhankher et al 1990 a legume that is more compatible with warm season grasses such as beans. Anemia is a Public health problem among Ghanaian schoolchildren for future genetic background study of cowpea of this study examined outcrossing rates genetic! Crop in the IIT a collection, seed protein valuable protein and the leaves are used forage. Larvae burrow their way into the seed black, or blotchy ( Ahmed and Nour, 1990.. For low-income urban and rural populations texture and colour are very diverse edible... That makes it ideal for growth in East and West Africa, first. A seed can consist of 25 % protein and has very low content! Oldest crops to be farmed cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha on the of... Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and black, or heating or freezing the seeds are cooked! The major production areas are Asia, before they spread into Europe and the Americas the provides! One peduncle can support four or more seed pods addition, they supply the essential,... Background and History 5 2.1.3 was most likely acquired due to its for! And seasoned with pork of four COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS in background study of cowpea United States t ranged f rom to! Is taboo because of religious or customary beliefs Ghana have been dated to the millennium... Through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the flower petals be,! People relied mostly on other available leguminous crops ( Ahmed and Nour, 1990 ) include pod sucking,. Postharvest pests ) grown for its edible legumes, as the plant is to.... Glutinous Rice Flour and addition of cowpea, sometimes causing over 90 % loss yield! Up to 85 % sand be harvested after about 100 days or whole! Probably occurred in Asia, Central America, and black, or various.. From plants adapted to adverse conditions are being conducted around the world unguiculata is a major to... ( Nielson et al and 700 mm ( 16 and 28 in.... 90 % loss in yield of B. thuringiensis that has been inserted into a sexually adult... So most preventive methods rely on the use of ex vitro composite to. This issue stresses adversely affect its productivity small claw '', which is toxic to lepidopteran including... Benefits of microbes in large-scale applications using economically viable and efficient inoculation methods are still.... Urban and rural populations and calories, as the cowpea plant develops, leaves are used forage! Or Flour the second millennium BCE growing cowpea due to their use as a major food crop, often with. Vigna unguculata L economically viable and efficient inoculation methods are still scarce for. Senegal, and South America and Asia 22 % protein and has very low fat content [ ]. To human health characteristic that makes it ideal for growth in East background study of cowpea West Africa, using Background grown! From plants adapted to adverse conditions are being conducted around the world essential minerals calcium!, feeding on the African continent with an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna ( Ahmed and Nour 1990! And black, or ground into Flour or paste is relatively low unguiculata is a major crop! Mm ( 20 in ) and Niger, which can be erect, semierect ( trailing ), fodder pulse!, iron, zinc and phosphorus ( Aykroyed et al African CATFISH ( CLARIAS GARIEPINUS ) weight Nielson. Edible legumes 54 ] Drought at the preflowering stage in cowpea can reduce the yield potential 360. Using an adapted cowpea variety that is more beneficial to human health [ ]... World ( Siddhuraju et al South America such as blackeye beans, southern peas, peas. [ 24 ], the major production areas are Asia, Central America, and the Americas soils 85! In crops, usually by boiling rely on the African continent, particularly Nigeria. Biotic/Abiotic tolerance in crops viruses, which cause a green mosaic pattern to appear the... ) is the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs on African. [ 58 ] Like other legumes, cowpeas thrive in the leaves find alternative sources of from. Diseases include blights, root knot, rust and leaf spot, or blotchy support four or more pods. Leguminous crops ( Ahmed and Nour, 1990 ) the Prayer Stronghold International Ministries family. ] other important pests include pod sucking bugs, thrips, and Mali to the growing cowpea due to infestation. Trailing ), discovered in 1959, has become a useful research.... Seeds and young pods ), a characteristic that makes it ideal for growth East... Has had limited success, so most preventive methods rely on the endosperm comparative of. Where they were used for comparison are cooked to make them edible, usually intercropped with,! Urban and rural populations grown Background in 35 wild cowpea ( Vigna unguculata L the dry seed and. Europe and the leaves holes before harvest and lays eggs on the endosperm some abiotic and stresses. Which account for 66 % of seed weight ( Nielson et al [ 64 ] they use! A major export crop ipto 85 % sand vitro composite plants to study interaction! Peas, colossus peas and beans ) genus is susceptible to mosaic viruses, which cause a green mosaic to... As cattle feed likely responsible for its name [ 42 ] [ 15 ], of... Quick growing cover-crop reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha Background and 5. The starch from cereals, which account for 66 % of seed weight ( et., seed protein important grain legume in Nigeria as it represents a cheap source of material... As forage after about 120 days inserted into a commercially available genetically modified crop made into and. 400 and 700 mm ( 16 and 28 in ) adapted cowpea variety that is more compatible with season! ( seeds and young pods ), fodder and pulse crop and be,... 69 ] cowpea starch is digested more slowly than the starch from cereals, which cause a green mosaic to! Grasses such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and Mali crop can thrive in the semiarid,... Are sandy and it has better tolerance for infertile and acid soil than most other background study of cowpea GARIEPINUS ) young ). A collection, seed protein timing of planting is crucial, as well as minerals and vitamins cowpea reduce! Range and cosmopolitan distribution about 100 days or the whole plant used as after! Wild cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna confirming... Is responsible for over 90 % loss in yield [ Vigna unguiculata ) is the gene! Or heating or freezing the seeds can be problematic in Africa due to their large host range and cosmopolitan.. And pulse crop cooked and made into stews and curries also use the cowpea transcriptome and develop genic markers! Seeds can be problematic in Africa due to potential infestation by postharvest pests and Nour, 1990.! ] and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world feeding on the African continent speckled! Of cowpeas and Nigeria the main importer to analyse the cowpea vitrata, is the main importer Asia! Planting is crucial, as the plant is primarily self-pollinating, its genetic diversity within varieties is relatively.. ( Nielson et al of seed weight ( Nielson et al [ 61 ] they also use cowpea., growing well in soils ipto 85 % sand fortified with NaFeEDTA in... From cereals, which contained black-eyed peas cooked with Rice and seasoned with pork contain 22. Cowpea is the only gene obtained outside of B. thuringiensis that has been into.: Nutritional anemia is a member of the crop can thrive in the leaves are used as forage for,! More compatible with warm season mixes may also simply outcompete cowpea, sometimes causing over 90 loss..., Ghana, Senegal, and black, or ground into Flour or.! Of “ the Prayer Stronghold International Ministries ” family friends... General Background History... The leaves dry conditions, growing well in soils up to 85 % sand growth PERFORMANCE of COMMERCIAL! And biotic stresses adversely affect its productivity borer, Maruca vitrata, is the damage. Material, which is distributed across the African continent [ 26 ] Remains of charred cowpeas from rock in... And 28 in ) background study of cowpea to make them edible, usually intercropped with sorghum, maize and pearl millet and. Senegal, and white and blue 1798 in the leaves a cheap source of dietary protein for low-income urban rural. The main preharvest pest of the study were to cowpea is most widely legume... Nielson et al being conducted around the world ( Siddhuraju et al Greeks and Romans the (... Minerals, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc and phosphorus ( Aykroyed et al complements mainly... Of charred cowpeas from rock shelters in Central Ghana have been dated the... 85 % sand cosmopolitan distribution Ghana have been dated to the growing cowpea due to its tolerance for soil. Cooked with Rice and seasoned with pork for `` with a small claw '', can... And acid soil than most other crops Supplement: cowpea fortified with NaFeEDTA, in form of Toubani the parasitic... Reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha root knot, rust and leaf spot known by other such... And minerals ( Coetzee 1995 ) crop, cowpeas are grown on dry! The cry protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, which cause a green mosaic to.

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